Advanced Microbiology (E05N5A)

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General info

This course is directed to students who attended the Basic Course of Microbiology to obtain a background on virology and bacteriology. Focus will be given on epidemiological, mechanistic and chemotherapeutic aspects of microorganisms. Recent developments, novel hypotheses and emerging microbiological issues will be discussed. Examples will be given from the bacteriology, virology, mycology and parasitology fields, and their potential impact on medicine.

Mode of examination

Written (outside normal exam period)



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Exam questions

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2014 - 2015

1. A biofilm is characterized by structural, chemical,... heterogeneity. Explain and link this to the increased resistance of biofilms.

2. 2 different ways to inhibit hemagglutinin , and how this works biochemically

3. What can countries do against a influenza pandemic

1.(Van Mellaert) Hoe worden levende bacteriën gebruikt tegen kanker? Wat zijn de gelijkenissen en verschillen tussen bacteriën als transfer proteïnen en als immuun adjuvant

2. (Vermeire) geef 3 voorbeelden hoe HIV entry geïnhibeerd kan worden

3.(Economou) Je wilt een gramnegatieve bacterie een bepaald eiwit laten produceren (ab, op het oppervlak, tegen bepaald antigen, …) wat zou je in de sequentie zetten om een zo goed mogelijke AB te maken? En welke problemen zou het eiwit kunnen ondervinden wanneer je wilt secreteren? Hoe kan je deze problemen oplossen?

2013 - 2014

1. A biofilm is characterized by structural, chemical,... heterogeneity. Explain and link this to the increased resistance of biofilms.

2. Give 10 properties of an ideal microbicide and explain them briefly.

3. Antigen detection in fungal infections. What antigens are detected, what infections can be diagnosed, pros and cons of each method.

4. Examples of tumour-inducing virus and possible ways they induce tumour

2017 - 2018

- Explain the function of PA, PB1 and PB2 and the working mechanism of PA and PB2 inhibitors

- Give two factors that cause variance in microbiome and give one factor that isn’t mentioned in the course

- Bacterial products in cancer therapy

- Discuss the viral proteins involved in the downmodulation of CD4R (HIV)

- Give the genome structure and function of bacterial Crispr-Cas9. Explain which structures are needed for genome editing in human cells. Explain mechanism of genome editing.

- Attachment and accumulation are 2 different processes in the formation of a biofilm. Which factors play a role in these processes and how can we interfere with these factors to prevent or treat biofilm-related infections.

- Explain the structural, chemical, transcriptional and phenotypic diversity of biofilms. How can this diversity lead to resistance to antibiotics and the host immune response? (Vanmellaert)

- Broadly neutralizing antibodies (Naessens)

 * Give the structure and explain the biological function of their target.
 * ‎What is meant by 'broadly neutralizing'?
 * Explain the direct anti-viral and immune-mediated effect of the bnAbs.

- What is special about the B2 enterotype? (Raes)

CRISPR: explain + example in virology Discuss the new marker test for used as a diagnostic tool for fungi, explain why there is an urge to develop new AF drugs and give an example. Describe the differences between live bacteria as cancer vaccines and protein delivery systems.

3 steps in the process of HIV entry. Give for each step an example of how this process can be inhibited. (Vermeire)

Why is HPV a tumor inducing virus? What are the hallmarks of cancer? (Andrei)

Influenza virus. Why are quadrivalent vaccines preferred over trivalent vaccines? (Van Ranst)