Human diseases (E07U1A)

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  • Introduction
  • Clinical oncology: mammacarcinoma, lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, prostate carcinoma, melanoma
  • Cardiovascular system: syncope, endocarditis, arrhythmias
  • Respiratory system: sarcoidosis, mucoviscidosis, sleep apnea, pulmonary hypertension, lung emboly, pneumonia, tuberculosis, ARDS, hyperventilation syndrome
  • Hepatobiliary disorders: hepatitis (viral, drug-induced), hemochromatosis, cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, acute en chronic pancreatitis
  • Gastro-intestinal system: oesophagus (GERD, achalasia), stomach (ulcus, gastritis), intestinal dysfunctions, infectious gastro-enteritis, coeliakia, inflammatory disorders (colitis ulcerosa and Crohn's disease), diverticulitis, hemorroids
  • Nephropathology: proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, kidney stones, drug-induced kidney dysfunction
  • Endocrine diseases: osteoporosis and osteomalacia, thyroid (goiter, hyper- en hypothyroidy), adrenal gland (aldosterone, cortisol, androgens), pituitary gland(acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, hyperprolactinemia
  • Blood: physiology, anemia, leucopenia and agranulocytosis, neoplastic hematopoietic disorders (leukemia, lymphoma, Kahler's syndrome, polcythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis
  • Bleeding and clotting disorders: blood clotting physiology, causes of bleeding disorder, causes of thrombosis, thrombotic microangiopathy, DIC
  • Gynaecological pathology: menopause, hormonal contraception, hirsutism, endometriosis, eclampsia
  • Infectious pathology:import pathology, viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, parasites

Exam form

Oral with written preparation, closed book, final examination during examination period There will be 4 theoretical questions, one from each lecturer:

  • Prof. Hans Prenen (gastro-enterology, hepatology, oncology, hematology)
  • Prof. Rik Lories (rheumatology, endocrinology)
  • Prof. Christophe Dubois (cardiology, pneumology)
  • Prof. Frederic Amant (Gynecology, infectious diseases)

There will be at least 45 minutes for written preparation. Subsequently, the four questions will be discussed orally with the coordinator of this course, prof. Hans Prenen.


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Human diseases 2012_forum Exam questions from 2012 from the Medica-forum   exam questions from earlier years

Exam questions

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Exam questions of '12 - '13


Give the mechanisms of EGFR-I resistance in colon cancer. (extra question: give the name of an EGFR-I, explain primary/secondary resistance)

Give the differential diagnose of icterus. How can you distiguisch between the different types.


Explain the pathogenesis of severe sepsis, how does inflammation affect coagulation? (extra: explain SIRS, how can you die from severe sepsis?)

Why do we screen for SIN? What is the relationship between cervical cancer and HPV.


Discuss the clinical picture and management of hyperthyroidism (extra: which treatment option is best and why?)

Discuss the acute presentation of diabetes type 1.


Discuss atrial fibrillation (extra: "case report":your mother has had A-fib for a week, what will the doctor do/what drugs will he give her?)

Discuss the symptomes of heart failure.

Exam questions of '13 - '14


Compare Classical chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Give an example of targeted therapy and explain the mechanism. ( Extra: How does chemo work?)

Give the mechanisms of EGFR-I resistance in colon cancer.

How is tumor response in chemotherapy evaluated and give the pro and contras of the these endpoints.


Why do we screen for SIN? What is the relationship between cervical cancer and HPV. (Extra: Vaccination against which types?

Explain the pathogenesis of severe sepsis, how does inflammation affect coagulation?

Discuss diabetes as complication in pregnancy.


Compare Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis. (Extra: genetic involvement, tests)

Discuss the clinical picture and management of hyperthyroidism

Discuss the management of diabetes mellitus type 1


Discuss the signs and symptomes of heart failure. (Extra: What is orthopea? Therapies)

Discuss atrial fibrillation

Discuss the difference between COPD and Asthma.

Exam questions of '14 - '15

1) discuss causes of cholestatic liver disease,

2) discuss symptoms and complications of malaria,

3) discuss cute clinical presentation of diabetes type 1

4) discuss the symptoms and treatment of lower limb ischemia

1) Resistance mechanisms in metastatic colon cancer (Extra: questions about Her2)

2) why do we screen for CIN? Relation between HPV and cervical cancer.

3) Clinical presentation and treatment of hyperthyroidism (Extra: which are the symptoms? which treatment is better and why? )

4) Signs and symptoms of heart failure (Extra: what is orthopnea? why is it produced?)

Exam questions of '15 - '16

1.Discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment for hyperparathyroidism Answer: Talk about calcium homeostasis

2. Review the general treatment for rheumatoid arthritis Answer: make sure to mention the agressive treatment first and why exactly

3. Give the differential diagnosis for icterus Answer: There are many… divide it into conjugated and unconjugated diagnoses. What is a quick was to diagnose the problem without any biochemical analysis: check if the urine is dark - this means it’s excess conjugated bilirubin

4. A patient: 70 years old, diabetic male, comes to the E.R with hypertension, chest pain for 2 hours and elevated ST segment in the ECG. What is the diagnosis? What tests can you do to further investigate. What is the treatment? Answer: He has an acute MI, check for CAD, treat with stent/ballon dilatation, and vasodilators

5. What is the difference between restrictive and obstructive lung disease, and discuss the diagnosis by lung function.

6. Discuss nephrotic syndrome (definition,etiology, treatment, clinical appearance, symptoms, risk factors).

7. Why is flu a scary disease? (extra: How is it transmitted? Why is it hard to set under control?)

8. What is GERD? Discuss the symptoms of GERD. (extra: what is the treatment? In what position (laying down or standing) are the symptoms more pronounced? What can you do to avoid them?)

9. Give resistance mechanisms against EGFR

10. Discus symptoms and treatment of Acute Interstitial Nephritis

11. Give therapy of Osteoporosis

12. Case study: Young woman: blunt force trauma, chest pain, dyspnea, 30

years old, physically fit but her grandmother died of myocardal infarction: what diagnostic tests do you make and in what order.

Exam questions of '17 - '18

1) Secondary and primary resistance against EGFR - inhibitors

2) Hypothyroidism (etiology, symptoms, treatment)

3) Acute peripheral artery occlusion (symptoms and treatment)

4) Psoriasis (clinical features and presentation forms)

1) Treatment of Osteoporosis

2) Patient female 28 years old: pain + jaundice. What’s your diagnosis? Extra test you’d do to confirm your diagnosis.

3) Membranous nephropathy

4) Compare stable coronary artery disease with acute coronary syndrome.