Advanced Studies in Oncology I (E03N2A)

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Cancer develops when gradual irreversible genetic or epigenetic changes accumulate in a cell and transform the cellular proteome in a way that a malignant cellular phenotype can develop. Typical characteristics of the malignant cellular phenotype are: unrestricted and autonomous cell growth, unlimited cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, tissue invasion and induction of angiogenesis and genetic instability. In ‘advanced studies in oncology’, important concepts of cell biology, experimental approach and therapeutic principles of malignant diseases are considered in detail, by means of recent reviews in literature. After this training topic, students are considered to be capable of: -commenting on modern insights in selected topics and discussing about them -reading and understanding reviews about related but undiscussed topics independently -place original articles about selected topics in the right scientific context


Mode of evaluation : Written

Category : evaluation outside normal examination period (read as the week before Christmas)

Type of evaluation : Closed book

Language: mandatory English



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(Klik hier om examenvragen toe te voegen.)

Examenvragen '12 - '13

Q-Explain the effect of PARP inhibitors on BRCA1-/- and BRCA2-/- cells.

A-Describe the effect of PARP inhibitors, the loss of BRCA and the combined effect.

Q-Explain the effect of lack of oxygen on therapy efficacy. How can oxygenation status be addressed experimentally and in the patient

A-HIF1a expression=> survivalgenes expression More aggressive tumor=>easier metastasis=> more resistant to surgery

Less oxygen=less vascularisation => less chemo penetrates into the tumor

Less oxygen=less ROS due to radiotherapy

Fluorescent markers for hypoxia, HIF1a detection with AB, oxygen sensitive electrodes, PET ligands for hypoxia and vascularisation.

Q-Assume a fully cloned gene, how do you assess the effect of this gene on the polarization of tumor associated macrophages

A-Many different ways are possible, look at the discussed papers to find different methods.

Examenvragen 2014-2015

1) welke methode wordt gebruikt om deleties/amplificaties in het BRCA1 gen te detecteren + leg uit.(Brems)

2) Voor-en nadelen van ATP competitieve kinase inhibitoren. Zijn er andere geneesmiddelen die ook kinases inhiberen en hebben deze voordelen vergeleken met de ATP competitors? (Dekeersmaercker)

3) Denk aan therapeutische mogelijkheden bij kanker op vlak van autofagie en immunogenische cell dood (ICD). (Agostines)

4) What are the typical aims of a phase I study in oncology and how are the critical endpoints of such a trial assessed during the conduct of the study? (Schöffski)

5) Why is a lack of oxygen related to treatment resistance in radiotherapy? (De Ruysscher)